horst. A block forced down forms a valley and is called a graben (Fig 2) The Vosges mountain, the Vindhyas in India and the Black


horst. A block forced down forms a valley and is
called a graben (Fig 2) The Vosges mountain,
the Vindhyas in India and the Black Forest in
Europe are examples of such mountains.
Volcanic Mountains
A volcanic mountain is formed when molten
rock from deep inside the Earth erupts through
the Earth’s crust and piles up to form a high,
cone-shaped mountain (Fig. 4) Mount
Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mount Fujiyama in
Japan are famous examples
Fig. 2: Formation of block mountains
Fig 4: Formation of a volcanic mountain
Usefulness of Mountains Importone
Fold Mountains
Fold mountains are formed when two tectonic
plates push together at the border. The extreme
pressure folds the edges of the tectonic plates
upwards into folds. A fold mountain can have
more than one type of fold. It can show both
anticline and syncline. Anticline fold has the
oldest rock in the centre, while a syncline is U
shaped with the youngest rock in the centre
(Fig. 3). However, fold mountains form over
millions of years, as tectonic plates move only a
few centimetres a year. Young fold mountains,
like the Himalayas in Asia and the Alps in
Europe, have high elevation, sharp peaks and
steep slopes. Over the years, the mountains are
worn down by forces of wind and water, and
become old fold mountains with low elevation
and rounded peaks. For example: the Aravallis
in India, the Appalachians in North America
and the Urals in Europe.
Mountains are a storehouse of water.
Glaciers are the source of many rivers which
have water throughout the year.
• The waterfalls are ideal sites for building
• River valleys and terraces provide suitable
sites for cultivation.
• Dense forests on mountain slopes have a
variety of flora and fauna, and provide fo
fuel and forest products like gum and re
• Mountains are scenic, pristine tourists
Many adventure sports like river raftin
paragliding, hand gliding and skiing
carried on in mountains.
Valley & Rift Valley
• A valley is the low-lying region betw
hills or mountains. Often a valley to
form of a V-shape caused by the
through it. A well-known example
the Chambal Valley in Madhya P

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